Using Dockerfile: Building and Customizing Images with Dockerfile

Using a Dockerfile is a powerful method for building and customizing images in Docker. Here is a detailed process and a specific example of using a Dockerfile to build and customize an image:

Create a Dockerfile

Begin by creating a new text file and naming it Dockerfile.

Define the base image

Use the FROM command to specify the base image for the new image. The base image can be an existing image from Docker Hub or another image you have previously built.

For example, to use the Ubuntu 20.04 image as the base image, you can use the following command:

FROM ubuntu:20.04

Execute installation and configuration commands

Use the RUN command to execute commands during the image-building process. You can use installation commands for software packages, environment configurations, create directories, and perform other necessary tasks.

For example, to install Nginx in the image, you can use the following command:

RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y nginx

Sao chép các tệp tin và thư mục vào image

Copy files and directories into the image: Use the COPY command to copy files and directories from the host machine into the image. You can copy source files, application directories, configuration files, and other resources into the image.

For example, to copy the app directory from the host machine to the /app directory in the image, you can use the following command:

COPY app /app

Define the default command when starting a container

Use the CMD command to specify the default command that will be executed when a container is started from the image. The CMD command defines the main program or command that the container will run upon startup.

For example, to start Nginx in the container, you can use the following command:

CMD ["nginx", "-g", "daemon off;"]​

Build the image from the Dockerfile

Use the docker build command along with the path to the Dockerfile to build a new image from the Dockerfile.

For example, to build an image from the Dockerfile in the current directory and name it "myimage," you can use the following command:

docker build -t myimage .​


By using a Dockerfile, you can customize the components and configuration within an image to meet the specific needs of your application.

For example, you can use a Dockerfile to install necessary software packages, configure the environment, copy source code and resources into the image. Dockerfile provides a flexible and reusable approach to building customized images in Docker.